What is Information?
„Just about all of the crucial notions in cognitive science are systematically ambiguous between an intrinsic, or observer-independent, sense and a derived, or observer-relative sense. In the intrinsic sense, all information is in conscious beings like us. The information in computers is like the information in books. It is all metaphorical or observer relative. The failure to understand these distinctions is responsible for a lot of horrible mistakes that I will correct in this talk.!
John R. Searle
John Rogers Searle is an American philosopher and the Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. Widely noted for his contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and social philosophy. He began teaching at Berkeley in 1959. He received the Jean Nicod Prize in 2000, the National Humanities Medal in 2004, and the Mind & Brain Prize in 2006. Among his notable concepts is the "Chinese room" argument against "strong" artificial intelligence.